libssh/doc/scp.dox
Mike Frysinger 963c3077a4 doc: fix up various typos and trailing whitespace
Signed-off-by: Mike Frysinger <vapier@gentoo.org>
Reviewed-by: Andreas Schneider <asn@cryptomilk.org>
2018-10-28 12:15:02 +01:00

269 lines
7.2 KiB
Plaintext

/**
@page libssh_tutor_scp Chapter 6: The SCP subsystem
@section scp_subsystem The SCP subsystem
The SCP subsystem has far less functionality than the SFTP subsystem.
However, if you only need to copy files from and to the remote system,
it does its job.
@subsection scp_session Opening and closing a SCP session
Like in the SFTP subsystem, you don't handle the SSH channels directly.
Instead, you open a "SCP session".
When you open your SCP session, you have to choose between read or write mode.
You can't do both in the same session. So you specify either SSH_SCP_READ or
SSH_SCP_WRITE as the second parameter of function ssh_scp_new().
Another important mode flag for opening your SCP session is SSH_SCP_RECURSIVE.
When you use SSH_SCP_RECURSIVE, you declare that you are willing to emulate
the behaviour of "scp -r" command in your program, no matter it is for
reading or for writing.
Once your session is created, you initialize it with ssh_scp_init(). When
you have finished transferring files, you terminate the SCP connection with
ssh_scp_close(). Finally, you can dispose the SCP connection with
ssh_scp_free().
The example below does the maintenance work to open a SCP connection for writing in
recursive mode:
@code
int scp_write(ssh_session session)
{
ssh_scp scp;
int rc;
scp = ssh_scp_new
(session, SSH_SCP_WRITE | SSH_SCP_RECURSIVE, ".");
if (scp == NULL)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Error allocating scp session: %s\n",
ssh_get_error(session));
return SSH_ERROR;
}
rc = ssh_scp_init(scp);
if (rc != SSH_OK)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Error initializing scp session: %s\n",
ssh_get_error(session));
ssh_scp_free(scp);
return rc;
}
...
ssh_scp_close(scp);
ssh_scp_free(scp);
return SSH_OK;
}
@endcode
The example below shows how to open a connection to read a single file:
@code
int scp_read(ssh_session session)
{
ssh_scp scp;
int rc;
scp = ssh_scp_new
(session, SSH_SCP_READ, "helloworld/helloworld.txt");
if (scp == NULL)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Error allocating scp session: %s\n",
ssh_get_error(session));
return SSH_ERROR;
}
rc = ssh_scp_init(scp);
if (rc != SSH_OK)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Error initializing scp session: %s\n",
ssh_get_error(session));
ssh_scp_free(scp);
return rc;
}
...
ssh_scp_close(scp);
ssh_scp_free(scp);
return SSH_OK;
}
@endcode
@subsection scp_write Creating files and directories
You create directories with ssh_scp_push_directory(). In recursive mode,
you are placed in this directory once it is created. If the directory
already exists and if you are in recursive mode, you simply enter that
directory.
Creating files is done in two steps. First, you prepare the writing with
ssh_scp_push_file(). Then, you write the data with ssh_scp_write().
The length of the data to write must be identical between both function calls.
There's no need to "open" nor "close" the file, this is done automatically
on the remote end. If the file already exists, it is overwritten and truncated.
The following example creates a new directory named "helloworld/", then creates
a file named "helloworld.txt" in that directory:
@code
int scp_helloworld(ssh_session session, ssh_scp scp)
{
int rc;
const char *helloworld = "Hello, world!\n";
int length = strlen(helloworld);
rc = ssh_scp_push_directory(scp, "helloworld", S_IRWXU);
if (rc != SSH_OK)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Can't create remote directory: %s\n",
ssh_get_error(session));
return rc;
}
rc = ssh_scp_push_file
(scp, "helloworld.txt", length, S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR);
if (rc != SSH_OK)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Can't open remote file: %s\n",
ssh_get_error(session));
return rc;
}
rc = ssh_scp_write(scp, helloworld, length);
if (rc != SSH_OK)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Can't write to remote file: %s\n",
ssh_get_error(session));
return rc;
}
return SSH_OK;
}
@endcode
@subsection scp_recursive_write Copying full directory trees to the remote server
Let's say you want to copy the following tree of files to the remote site:
@verbatim
+-- file1
+-- B --+
| +-- file2
-- A --+
| +-- file3
+-- C --+
+-- file4
@endverbatim
You would do it that way:
- open the session in recursive mode
- enter directory A
- enter its subdirectory B
- create file1 in B
- create file2 in B
- leave directory B
- enter subdirectory C
- create file3 in C
- create file4 in C
- leave directory C
- leave directory A
To leave a directory, call ssh_scp_leave_directory().
@subsection scp_read Reading files and directories
To receive files, you pull requests from the other side with ssh_scp_pull_request().
If this function returns SSH_SCP_REQUEST_NEWFILE, then you must get ready for
the reception. You can get the size of the data to receive with ssh_scp_request_get_size()
and allocate a buffer accordingly. When you are ready, you accept the request with
ssh_scp_accept_request(), then read the data with ssh_scp_read().
The following example receives a single file. The name of the file to
receive has been given earlier, when the scp session was opened:
@code
int scp_receive(ssh_session session, ssh_scp scp)
{
int rc;
int size, mode;
char *filename, *buffer;
rc = ssh_scp_pull_request(scp);
if (rc != SSH_SCP_REQUEST_NEWFILE)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Error receiving information about file: %s\n",
ssh_get_error(session));
return SSH_ERROR;
}
size = ssh_scp_request_get_size(scp);
filename = strdup(ssh_scp_request_get_filename(scp));
mode = ssh_scp_request_get_permissions(scp);
printf("Receiving file %s, size %d, permissions 0%o\n",
filename, size, mode);
free(filename);
buffer = malloc(size);
if (buffer == NULL)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Memory allocation error\n");
return SSH_ERROR;
}
ssh_scp_accept_request(scp);
rc = ssh_scp_read(scp, buffer, size);
if (rc == SSH_ERROR)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Error receiving file data: %s\n",
ssh_get_error(session));
free(buffer);
return rc;
}
printf("Done\n");
write(1, buffer, size);
free(buffer);
rc = ssh_scp_pull_request(scp);
if (rc != SSH_SCP_REQUEST_EOF)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Unexpected request: %s\n",
ssh_get_error(session));
return SSH_ERROR;
}
return SSH_OK;
}
@endcode
In this example, since we just requested a single file, we expect ssh_scp_request()
to return SSH_SCP_REQUEST_NEWFILE first, then SSH_SCP_REQUEST_EOF. That's quite a
naive approach; for example, the remote server might send a warning as well
(return code SSH_SCP_REQUEST_WARNING) and the example would fail. A more comprehensive
reception program would receive the requests in a loop and analyze them carefully
until SSH_SCP_REQUEST_EOF has been received.
@subsection scp_recursive_read Receiving full directory trees from the remote server
If you opened the SCP session in recursive mode, the remote end will be
telling you when to change directory.
In that case, when ssh_scp_pull_request() answers
SSH_SCP_REQUEST_NEWDIRECTORY, you should make that local directory (if
it does not exist yet) and enter it. When ssh_scp_pull_request() answers
SSH_SCP_REQUEST_ENDDIRECTORY, you should leave the current directory.
*/